Translation is the process of replacing strings in an application or website to make interfacing with the application or website easier for people from countries with different languages.
Transliteration refers to the process of mapping letters or glyphs from one character encoding to another
"The issue here is that an automatic translation from sql to linq will often have to perform more transliteration than translation - generating examples of how not to write linq queries"
from question "SQL to LINQ Tool"
"For removal and transliteration there is a better tool called tr translation or delete characters"
from question "Remove a range of escape / non-printable chars in sed"